How to Make Magnetic Levitation Device | DIY Magnetic Levitator V2.0

Hi, guys welcome to Electrical Project channel. Today I am going to build version 2.0 of my
magnetic levitation device. Previous version was unstable and required
a power supply with adjustable voltage, which is not good. So, I did some experimenting and came up with
this circuit. Testing showed good results, so I decided
to make a complete device. By complete I mean to implement it on a PCB,
and make a frame for the device. Well here is the PCB that I created in KiCAD,
it is my first KiCAD project, but I hope it'll work fine. This is how the completed PCB should look
like. I am going to make the PCB at home, which
is a little challenging, but doable.

I did it before but it was a long time ago. Well, let’s do it. The first step is to print the PCB layout. Now we need to transfer it to a copper-clad
board. I need to align it properly. Now we need to apply some heat. The next step is to remove the paper. I need to remove the paper without removing
the toner. This is not the only way to make PCBs at home,
I remember using photoresist to make pretty complicated PCBs, with good quality,
but it was a long time ago, and I don’t have photoresist now, so I’ll try this simpler
method. There are still present micro fibbers from
the paper, I need to remove them. Now it is time for etching process using iron
chloride. And after some time copper that is not covered
with toner disappears.

Now after etching finished I got this. Let’s, clean it. And here is the result. Well, it is not perfect, seems like iron chloride
got trough the tonner. Well, it is not perfect but still usable. Ok, here goes the next step,
The next step is simple, I need to drill holes. So let’s do it. And here goes the fun part of the project,
it‘s the assembly of electronic components to the PCB.

I going to start with the heat sink. Heat sink dissipates a lot of heat, so I use
60W soldering iron, to solder it properly. For other components, I am using my regular
soldering iron. Next, I decided to solder MOSFET. But it is pretty arbitrary. Now let’s solder, Trimmer Potentiometer. And now let’s solder electrolytic capacitor. Polarity is important here, so pay attention
to polarity markings. When it is done let’s solder the diode. Polarity is important here as well, Cathode needs to be soldered to the positive trace on PCB. Now let’s solder the LED,
Longer lead is anode lead. Anode later will be connected via SMD resistor
to the positive retrace on the PCB. Now let’s solder TL431,
Looking at TL431 electronic symbol some may think that it is some kind of weird Zener
diode, but it is actually just an integrated circuit. TL431 is commonly used in power supplies. Now lets solder 78L05 with is 5 volt voltage
regulator. And when it is done, let’s solder jumper

And now it is time to solder SMD components. Let’s solder 1K resistor that connects LED
to the positive PCB trace. Now, one more 1K resistor. And here goes 100nF capacitor. 1K resistor again. And now 1uF capacitor. Ok, now I am going to solder two of the 330K
resistors, they are connected sequentially so together
they make 660K resistance, you can, of course, try to use a little bit
different values, but I experimentally found out that values
about 600K work well. Ok, now it is time to solder wires. There is not much to explain here,
two wires needed for power, and two wires will be connected to the electromagnet. Also, we need three thinner wires that will
be connected to the Hall Effect sensor. And that is it. Also, I use hot glue, so bending does not
damage the wires. Now let’s clean the PCB.

anti gravity

And now I realized that I forgot to solder
1uF capacitor, well this capacitor is not that important,
but let's solder it. Now let’s clean it. Now I covered the PCB with old expired photoresist
spray, it will work as a protection layer, you can
use nail polish instead, transparent nail polish should look even cooler. But I use what I have. Also, I decided to apply the thermal paste
between the MOSFET and heat sink. It is not necessary, but it potentially should
make things better so let's do it. Perfection is not attainable, but we can try. Now let's make a small PCB for Hall Effect
sensor. I need to cut copper layer into three different
pieces. Now I going to salvage Hall Effect sensor
from old floppy disk reader’s PCB.

But you can also find them in motors of CD/DVD
drives. Now let’s solder Hall Effect sensor to the
PCB. And now let’s solder wires. The black wire we need to conned to the bottom, on the main PCB black wire is connected to the ground plane. Now let’s connect the red wire to the top
right square. On the main PCB red wire is connected to the
1K SMD resistor. And let’s connect the blue wire to the top
left square. On the main PCB blue wire is connected to
10K trimmer potentiometer. Now let’s clean the PCB. And that is it; you can even do some tests
now. By adjusting potentiometer you can change
the sensitivity. Now let me show you specs of the electromagnet
I am going to use.

I did not make this coil; I’ve got it from
some device. It is 31 Ohms, 58mH. Now you need to tune the device,
you need to adjust potentiometer in way so LED turns off when you bring the magnet close
to the sensor. Now when LED is on bring the magnet to the
electromagnet, you should feel attraction, not repulsion,
if you feel any repulsion, it means you connected electromagnet with the wrong polarity,
so you need to reversed the polarity. Now let’s test it. Well, it kind of works. Also, I recommend covering the hall sensor's
PCB with Hot glue, Because sometimes the magnet hits the sensor
and can damage it. Now I need to mount PCB to the frame. So I need to drill holes in the PCB, I should
have thought about it before. But let’s do it now. Also, I drilled holes in the frame, so let's
mount the PCB. These screws are overkill here, but again
I use what I have. Ok, the PCB is mounted now so let’s continue
building the frame.

You can come up with a completely different
frame idea, this is just an idea that I came up with. You can of course use this device without
any frame at all, you’ll just need to hang electromagnet somewhere. It is all up to you. Well there is not much to comment here, so
enjoy me not talking! Also, there is should be some space between
the electromagnet and the hall effect sensor, otherwise it will not work. You can use some plastic or something similar. The device can work in a wide range of voltages,
from 8 volts up to 16 volts, 16 volts is the limit just because I’ve
used 16V electrolytic capacitor.

I think 12V is the perfect choice for this
device. I’ll use a 12V DC power supply for powering,
such power supplies usually used with routers, so it is easy to find one. It can even levitate my wire cutters, so it probably could work as some fancy advertising setup. And that is all, thanks for watching! Don’t forget to like and subscribe, and
see you in another one!.

As found on YouTube

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